Gynecologic Oncology

Gynecologic oncology is any cancer that starts in a woman’s reproductive organs. While they are often discussed as a group, each gynecologic cancer is unique. Each has different signs, symptoms and risk factors.

The Five Main Types of Gynecologic Cancer  

  • Cervical cancer: Begins in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus (or womb)
    • Ovarian cancer: Begins in the ovaries, located on each side of the uterus
    • Uterine cancer: Begins in the uterus, the pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis where the baby grows when a woman is pregnant
    • Vaginal cancer: Begins in the vagina, the hollow, tube-like channel between the bottom of the uterus and the outside of the body. It is also called the birth canal.
    • Vulvar cancer: Begins in the vulva, the outer part of the female genital organs
      Different types and combinations of cancer treatment are possible, depending on the type of cancer and the stage at which it is diagnosed.

      Possible Treatments Include:  

    • Surgery: A surgeon removes as much of the cancer as possible. The extent or possibility of surgery depends on the type of cancer, the stage and the patient’s overall health.
    • Chemotherapy: A doctor uses drugs to stop or slow the growth of cancer cells. 
    • Radiation Therapy: A doctor uses high doses of radiation — high-energy rays — to kill cancer cells and stop them from spreading.

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